Abstract— Tampering Detection in Compressed Digital Video Using Watermarking. This paper presents a method to detect video tampering and distinguish it from common video processing operations, such as recompression, noise, and brightness increase, using a practical watermarking scheme for real-time authentication of digital video. In our method, the watermark signals represent the macroblock’s and frame’s indices, < Final Year Projects > and are embedded into the nonzero quantized discrete cosine transform value of blocks, mostly the last nonzero values, enabling our method to detect spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal tampering. Our method can be easily configured to adjust transparency, robustness, and capacity of the system according to the specific application at hand. In addition, our method takes advantage of content-based cryptography and increases the security of the system. While our method can be applied to any modern video codec, including the recently released high-efficiency video coding standard, we have implemented and evaluated it using the H.264/AVC codec, and we have shown that compared with the existing similar methods, which also embed extra bits inside video frames, our method causes significantly smaller video distortion, leading to a PSNR degradation of about 0.88 dB and structural similarity index decrease of 0.0090 with only 0.05% increase in bitrate, and with the bit correct rate of 0.71 to 0.88 after H.264/AVC recompression.
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