Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Clustering by Preventing Residual Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract— Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Clustering by Preventing Residual Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks. Particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based effective clustering in wireless sensor networks is proposed. In the existing optimized energy efﬁcient routing protocol (OEERP), during cluster formation some of the nodes are left out without being a member of any of the cluster which results in residual node formation. Such residual or individual nodes forward the sensed data either directly to the base station or by ﬁnding the next best hop by sending many control messages hence reduces the network lifetime. < Final Year Project 2016 > The proposed enhanced-OEERP E-OEERP reduces/eliminates such individual node formation and improves the overall network lifetime when compared with the existing protocols. It can be achieved by applying the concepts of PSO and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) for cluster formation and routing, respectively.
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