Abstract—ALBA-R Load-Balancing Geographic Routing Around Connectivity Holes in Wireless Sensor Networks. This paper presents ALBA-R, a protocol for convergecasting in wireless sensor networks. ALBA-R features the cross-layer integration of geographic routing with contention-based MAC for relay selection and load balancing (ALBA), as well as a mechanism to detect and route around connectivity holes (Rainbow). ALBA and Rainbow (ALBA-R) together solve the problem of routing around a dead end without overhead-intensive techniques such as graph planarization and face routing. The protocol is localized and distributed, < Final Year Projects > and adapts efficiently to varying traffic and node deployments. Through extensive ns2-based simulations, we show that ALBA-R significantly outperforms other convergecasting protocols and solutions for dealing with connectivity holes, especially in critical traffic conditions and low-density networks. The performance of ALBA-R is also evaluated through experiments in an outdoor testbed of TinyOS motes. Our results show that ALBA-R is an energy-efficient protocol that achieves remarkable performance in terms of packet delivery ratio and end-to-end latency in different scenarios, thus being suitable for real network deployments.
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