Abstract—NETWRAP: An NDN Based Real-TimeWireless Recharging Framework for WirelessSensor Networks. Using vehicles equipped with wireless energy transmission technology to recharge sensor nodes over the air is a game-changer for < Final Year Projects > traditional wireless sensor networks. The recharging policy regarding when to recharge which sensor nodes critically impacts the network performance. So far only a few works have studied such recharging policy for the case of using a single vehicle. In this paper, we propose NETWRAP, an NDN based Real Time Wireless Recharging Protocol for dynamic wireless recharging in sensor networks. The real-time recharging framework supports single or multiple mobile vehicles. Employing multiple mobile vehicles provides more scalability and robustness. To efficiently deliver sensor energy status information to vehicles in real-time, we leverage concepts and mechanisms from named data networking (NDN) and design energy monitoring and reporting protocols. We derive theoretical results on the energy neutral condition and the minimum number of mobile vehicles required for perpetual network operations. Then we study how to minimize the total traveling cost of vehicles while guaranteeing all the sensor nodes can be recharged before their batteries deplete. We formulate the recharge optimization problem into a Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem with Deadlines (m-TSP with Deadlines), which is NP-hard. To accommodate the dynamic nature of node energy conditions with low overhead, we present an algorithm that selects the node with the minimum weighted sum of traveling time and residual lifetime. Our scheme not only improves network scalability but also ensures the perpetual operation of networks. Extensive simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed design. The results also validate the correctness of the theoretical analysis and show significant improvements that cut the number of nonfunctional nodes by half compared to the static scheme while maintaining the network overhead at the same level.
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