Load Balancing Under Heavy Traffic in RPL Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks
Abstract-RPL is an IPv6 routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks (LLNs) designed to meet the requirements of a wide range of LLN applications including smart grid AMIs, industrial and environmental monitoring, and wireless sensor networks. RPL allows bidirectional end-to-end IPv6 communication on resource constrained LLN devices, leading to the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) with thousands and millions of devices interconnected through multihop mesh networks. In this article, we investigate the load balancing and congestion problemof RPL. Specifically, we show that most of the packet losses under heavy traffic are due to congestion, and a serious load balancing problemappears in RPL in terms of routing parent selection. To overcome this problem, this article proposes a simple yet effective queue utilization based RPL (QU-RPL) that achieves load balancing and significantly improves the end-to-end packet delivery performance compared to the standard RPL.
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