A New Spatial–Spectral Feature Extraction Method for Hyperspectral Images Using Local Covariance Matrix Representation
Abstract-In this paper, a novel local covariance matrix (CM) representation method is proposed to fully characterize the correlation among different spectral bands and the spatial–contextual information in the scene when conducting feature extraction (FE) from hyperspectral images (HSIs). Specifically, our method first projects the HSI into a subspace, using the maximum noise fraction method. Then, for each test pixel in the subspace, its most similar neighboring pixels (within a local spatial window) are clustered using the cosine distance measurement. The test pixel and its neighbors are used to calculate a local CM for FE purposes. Each nondiagonal entry in the matrix characterizes the correlation between different spectral bands. Finally, these matrices are used as spatial–spectral features and fed to a support vector machine for classification purposes. The proposed method offers a new strategy to characterize the spatial–spectral information in the HSI prior to classification. Experimental results have been conducted using three publicly available hyperspectral data sets for classification, indicating that the proposed method can outperform several state-of-the-art techniques, especially when the training samples available are limited.
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