Stochastic Resource Provisioning for
Container ized Multi-Tier Web Ser vices in Clouds
Abstract-Under today’s bursty web traffic, the fine-grained per-container control promises more efficient resource provisioning for web services and better resource utilization in cloud datacenters. In this paper, we present Two-stage Stochastic Programming Resource Allocator (2SPRA). It optimizes resource provisioning for containerized n-tier web services in accordance with fluctuations of incoming workload to accommodate predefined SLOs on response latency. In particular, 2SPRA is capable of minimizing resource over-provisioning by addressing dynamics of web traffic as workload uncertainty in a native stochastic optimization model. Using special-purpose OpenOpt optimization framework, we fully implement 2SPRA in Python and evaluate it against three other existing allocation schemes, in a Docker-based CoreOS Linux VMs on Amazon EC2. We generate workloads based on four real-world web traces of various traffic variations: AOL, WorldCup98, ClarkNet, and NASA. Our experimental results demonstrate that 2SPRA achieves the minimum resource over-provisioning outperforming other schemes. In particular, 2SPRA allocates only 6.16% more than application’s actual demand on average and at most 7.75% in the worst case. It achieves 3× further reduction in total resources provisioned compared to other schemes delivering overall cost-savings of 53.6% on average and up to 66.8%. Furthermore, 2SPRA demonstrates consistency in its provisioning decisions and robust responsiveness against workload fluctuations.
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